Twente Water Tunnel (TWT)

The Twente Water Tunnel is an 8m high facility in which strong turbulence (up to a Taylor-Reynolds number of 300) can be created using an active grid. Light particles including micro-bubbles, finite-sized bubbles, and hollow spheres can be suspended in the turbulent flow. The setup houses bubble injection islands capable of producing mono-disperse bubbles with a concentration up to 10%. In addition, the size of the mono-disperse bubbles can be varied. These light particles may be made to rise with or against the flow, and can be observed and followed in the measuring section for long-duration tracking. The instrumentation includes 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry, hot-film anemometry, and optical probes. A traverse system enables the movement of the cameras and other devices with the operated mean flow.

The control parameters in the TWT are the density ratio between particles and water, the particle size and concentration, the particle Reynolds number and the Taylor Reynolds number. The questions that we address with the TWT facility are the Lagrangian particle dynamics in the flow and in particular particle clustering, velocity and acceleration statistics, effect of particles on spectra and collision rates, average rise/sink velocity of particles, further Lagrangian aspects, and finally also bubbly drag reduction.

The TWT is a unique facility to explore light particle regime of the phase space in particles in turbulence: relative particle density vs. Stokes number at different turbulence levels.

Below, a video of the micro-bubbles tracked using a Moving Camera-Particle Tracking Velocimetry.


Researchers: Biljana Gvozdić, Elise Alméras, Varghese Mathai, Chao SunDetlef Lohse
Technical staff: Gert-Wim BruggertMartin Bos, and numerous of people of TCO
Collaborators: Hans Kuipers (FCRE-group U. Twente), J.F. Pinton (ENS Lyon), Federico Toschi (TU Eindhoven),  ICTR International Collaboration for Turbulence Research.
Embedding: MESA+, JMBC, European Research Network on Turbulence, ICTR International Collaboration for Turbulence Research. 
Sponsors: European Research Network on Turbulence, FOM, AkzoNobel, TataSteel, DSM, Shell, EuHIT
Previous researchers: Daniel Chehata GómezJulián Martínez MercadoJudith RensenVivek Nagendra PrakashJon BronsYoshi Tagawa


The clustering morphology of freely rising deformable bubbles[arΧiv]
Y. Tagawa, I. Roghair, V.N. Nagendra Prakash, M. van Sint-Annaland, J.A.M. Kuipers, C. Sun, and D. Lohse
J. Fluid Mech. 721, R2 (2013)BibTeΧ
How gravity and size affect the acceleration statistics of bubbles in turbulence[arΧiv]
V.N. Nagendra Prakash, Y. Tagawa, E. Calzavarini, J. Martínez Mercado, F. Toschi, D. Lohse, and C. Sun
New J. Phys. 14, 105017 (2012)BibTeΧ
Featured in: "Highlights of 2012 - New Journal of Physics (NJP) - Soft Matter and Biophysics
Lagrangian statistics of light particles in turbulence[arΧiv]
J. Martínez Mercado, V.N. Nagendra Prakash, Y. Tagawa, C. Sun, and D. Lohse
Phys. Fluids 24, 055106 (2012)BibTeΧ
Three-dimensional Lagrangian Voronoï analysis for clustering of particles and bubbles in turbulence[arΧiv]
Y. Tagawa, J. Martínez Mercado, V.N. Nagendra Prakash, E. Calzavarini, C. Sun, and D. Lohse
J. Fluid Mech. 693, 201–215 (2012)BibTeΧ
On bubble clustering and energy spectra in pseudo-turbulence[arΧiv]
J. Martínez Mercado, D. Chehata Gómez, D.P.M. van Gils, C. Sun, and D. Lohse
J. Fluid Mech. 650, 287–306 (2010)BibTeΧ
Evolution of energy in flow driven by rising bubbles[arΧiv]
I. Mazzitelli and D. Lohse
Phys. Rev. E 79, 066317 (2009)BibTeΧ
Particles go with the flow
D. Lohse
Phys. 1, 18 (2008)BibTeΧ
Dimensionality and morphology of particle and bubble clusters in turbulent flow[arΧiv]
E. Calzavarini, M. Kerscher, D. Lohse, and F. Toschi
J. Fluid Mech. 607, 13–24 (2008)BibTeΧ
Universal Intermittent Properties of Particle Trajectories in Highly Turbulent Flows
A. Arnèodo, R. Benzi, J. Berg, L. Biferale, E. Bodenschatz, A. Busse, E. Calzavarini, B. Castaing, M. Cencini, L. Chevillard, R. Fisher, R. Grauer, H. Homann, D. Lamb, A.S. Lanotte, E. Lévèque, B. Lüthi, J. Mann, N. Mordant, W.C. Müller, S. Ott, N.T. Ouellette, J.F. Pinton, S.B. Pope, S.G. Roux, F. Toschi, H. Xu, and P.K. Yeung
Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 254504 (2008)BibTeΧ
Quantifying Turbulence-Induced Segregation of Inertial Particles[arΧiv]
E. Calzavarini, M. Cencini, D. Lohse, and F. Toschi
Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 084504 (2008)BibTeΧ
Energy spectra in microbubbly turbulence
T.H. van den Berg, S. Luther, and D. Lohse
Phys. Fluids 18, 038103 (2006)BibTeΧ
Hot-film anemometry in bubbly flow I: bubble–probe interaction
J. Rensen, S. Luther, J. de Vries, and D. Lohse
Int. J. Multiphase Flow 31, 285 – 301 (2005)BibTeΧ
The effect of bubbles on developed turbulence
J. Rensen, S. Luther, and D. Lohse
J. Fluid Mech. 538, 153–187 (2005)BibTeΧ
On the relevance of the lift force in bubbly turbulence
I. Mazzitelli, D. Lohse, and F. Toschi
J. Fluid Mech. 488, 283–313 (2003)BibTeΧ
The effect of microbubbles on developed turbulence
I. Mazzitelli, D. Lohse, and F. Toschi
Phys. Fluids 15, L5–L8 (2002)BibTeΧ
Induced bubble shape oscillations and their impact on the rise velocity
J. de Vries, S. Luther, and D. Lohse
European Physical Journal B 29, 503–509 (2002)BibTeΧ

Rayleigh Benard convection conference 2018 rbc2018
Max Planck Gesellschaft
Centre for Scientific Computing